It is basically an injury to the joint, which causes the bones to be dislocated from their positions. It results in affecting the movement of the bones.
Dislocation of the knee is a rare injury and is usually caused by high velocity trauma such as road traffic accident or a hit to the knee during sports or a fall.
However, the high risk group for dislocations include the following.
In most cases, the dislocated area will be swollen or look bruised red or discolored. It will also have a deformed shape caused due to the dislocation. Apart from this, the victim may suffer from loss of motion with acute severe pain. Numbness around the affected area or the distal aspect of the leg may be present because of stretching of the skin or injury to the nerve. In case of vascular injury the affected limb may look pale or discoloured.
After physical examination, the doctor asks for an X-Ray to confirm the dislocation and the amount of damage that has occurred. For more complex cases, the MRI scan is requested in order to know the extent of soft tissues damage around the affected joint. Sometimes special scans are necessary to know the status of the blood vessels. Knee dislocation usually occurs in a high velocity injury and so additional injuries should be looked for and carefully noted. Rupture of the ligaments and muscles are so common and should be taken care from the beginning to get maximum results.
There are two types of dislocations. The Anterior and Posterior types. Picture illustrates the damage to surrounding tissues including ligaments and blood vessels.
Types of Knee Dislocation
Treatment for Joint Dislocation:
The doctor will take the call on the treatment depending upon the severity and intensity of the dislocation. However the initial treatment of dislocation involves rest, ice, compression or placing the knee in an elevated position. The definitive treatment then involve:
Surgeon manipulates the dislocated joint and brings it to normal position under anaesthesia.
Authored By Dr. Raj Kanna - Orthopaedic and Knee surgeon, Chennai